Chapter Nineteen: The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World



Introduction





The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

  • Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)

New Products

  • Steel
  • Electricity
    • Generators (1870s)
    • Thomas Edison and Briton Joseph - electric lights
    • Alexander Graham Bell - telephone (1876)
    • Guglielmo Marconi – trans-Atlantic radio waves (1901)
    • Electric street-cars and subways
  • Internal Combustion Engine - used in automobiles and airplanes
  • Tariffs and cartels
    • "A cartel is a formal (explicit) agreement among competing firms" (Wikipedia)
    • "A tariff is a tax levied on imports or exports" (Wikipedia)

New Patterns


APWorld1.jpg
  • Between 1870 and 1914, Germany replaced Great Britain as the industrial leader of Europe
  • By 1900, there were two European economic zones
    • Great Britain, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Germany, West Austria-Hungary, and Northern Italy
      • Advanced industrialized core
      • High standard of living
    • Southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan Kingdoms, Russia
      • Largely agricultural
APWorld2.jpg

Toward a World Economy


APWorld3.jpg
  • World Economy:
    • A global exchange of goods and services
    • Established by 1900
    • Europe dominated the world economy by the beginning of the 20th century

The Spread of Industrialization

  • Industrialization spread
  • Russia
    • Sergei Witte, Russian minister for finance
      • Organized a massive railroad construction and fostered a steel and coal industry
  • Japan
    • The imperial government promoted industry

Women and Work: New Job Opportunities

  • Before:
    • Women should not work
    • Letting women work would corrupt families
    • Women did work low-wage jobs (sweatshops, etc.) if their husbands were unemployed
  • After:
    • Demand for white-collar workers at low wages
    • A shortage of male workers led to women workers
    • Women’s work
      • Secretaries, clerks, telephone operators
      • Teachers, nurses
    • Jobs offered women:
      • Freedom from domestic stereotypes and expectations
      • Freedom from the physical labor of lower-class life

Organizing the Working Classes

  • After 1970, socialist political parties and socialist labor unions
  • 1840 - The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
  • "1867 - Das Kapital (Capital: Criticism of the Political Economy, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written in German by Karl Marx and edited in part by Friedrich Engels. The book is a critical analysis of capitalism." (Wikipedia)

Marxist Theory

  • Class struggles
    • Oppressor and an oppressed = Bourgeoisie and proletariat
    • Bourgeoisie has power
    • Proletariat depends on bourgeoisie
    • Revolution
    • Bourgeoisie = overthrown, Proletariat forms a dictatorship
    • Over time, a classless society, or communism

Socialist Parties

  • German Social Democratic Party (SDP):
    • Emerged in 1875
    • Accepted Marx
    • Competed for the Reichstag (the lower house of Parliament)
    • Reforms
    • Became the largest party in Germany in 1912
  • First International Party
    • Failed in 1872
  • Second International Party
    • Emerged in 1889
    • Fought against capitalism worldwide
    • May Day

Revisionism and Trade Unions

  • Revisionism divided Marxist parties
    • Revolutionary Socialism – revolution to Communism
    • Evolutionary Socialism – democratic rule to Communism
  • Trade Unions
    • Increase in striking

The Emergence of Mass Society

  • Mass society
    • Gave lower classes voting rights, an improved standard of living, and education

The New Urban Environment

  • Population growth + Industrialization = Urbanization
    • Increased amounts of people live in or near a city
  • Economic need; people wanted well-paying jobs, which were in the cities
  • Health and living conditions improved
  • New technology
  • Reforms
    • Dams and reservoirs
    • Gas and electric heaters
    • Piping for expelling sewage
    • V.A. Huber, German housing reformer - housing

The Social Structure of Mass Society

  • Wealthy elite
    • Landed aristocrats joined with industrialists, bankers, and merchants to form this elite
    • Had roles in government bureaucracies and the military
  • Middle classes
    • Upper middle class
      • Married and associated with the wealthy elite
    • Central middle class
      • Doctors, lawyers, members of civil service, etc.
    • Lower Middle Class
      • Shopkeepers, traders, prosperous peasants
    • White-Collar Workers
      • Salespeople, secretaries, bank tellers
      • Worked low wages but were committed to middle class ideals
    • All middle class members shared a belief in hard work, good conduct, Christian morals, and propriety
  • Working Classes
    • Almost eighty percent of the European population
    • Landholding peasants, agricultural laborers, and sharecroppers
    • Skilled artisans (carpenters, jewelry makers, etc.)
    • Domestic servants and day laborers
    • Between 1870 and 1890, wages went up and consumer costs went down

The Experiences of Women

  • Women remained legally inferior, economically dependent, and largely defined by family and household roles

Marriage and the Family

  • Marriage
    • Marriage , only honorable career
    • Financially necessary
  • Family
    • Birthrates dropped
    • Birth control (coitus interruptus, male withdrawal, abortion, infanticide)
    • Middle-class Families
      • The family was important
      • The use of domestic servants = less time spent on chores
      • Less children = women devote more time to child care
      • Togetherness
    • Working-Class Families
      • Women work until marriage
      • Children became apprentices, workers
    • Families Between 1800 and 1914
      • High-paying jobs
      • Improved standard of living
      • Women did not have to work as much
      • Assumed the consumer ethic (We need a clock, stove, etc.)
      • Small families + Shorter work days = More emotional ties with children

The Movement for Women's Rights

  • In the 1830s, reformist women fought to…
    • Divorce
    • Own property
    • Receive higher education
    • Have certain jobs
      • Teaching
      • Nursing
        • German nursing pioneer, Amalie Sieveking, British nurse Florence Nightingale (Crimean War), and American nurse Clara Barton (American Civil War) became symbols of the nursing profession
    • Vote
  • Suffragistsfought only for the right of women to become full citizens
    • Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903in Great Britain
  • Women did not get many rights until after World War I

Education in an Age of Mass Society

  • Universal education
  • By the start of the 20th century, many European states provided…
    • State-financed primary schools
    • Paid and trained teachers
    • Free, compulsory elementary education
      • This is known as mass education
  • Causes
    • Need for skilled and trained labor
    • Need for a more educated electorate
    • A need for a united nation - mass education instilled patriotism in children
  • Led to a demand for teachers, mostly women but there was still sexism within the field
    • Men viewed teaching as an extension of “nurturing” children
    • Females were paid less than men
    • Female colleges were teacher-training schools
    • It was not until the 20th century that women were allowed into male-dominated universities
  • Increase in literacy; by 1900, areas with more schools virtually eliminated adult illiteracy

Leisure in an Age of Mass Society

  • "Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator...best known for the philosophy of education which bears her name (the Montessori Method). Her educational method is in use today in public as well as private schools throughout the world." (Wikipedia)
  • Mass leisure is the everyday leisure pursuits of the population’s majority
  • New leisure hours
  • New technology:
    • Ferris wheels
    • Subways and streetcars allowed people to be able to go on vacations
    • yaz lawsuit
    • Sports
      • Strictly organized team sports
      • Stadiums
  • Leisure activities
    • Drew mass audiences
    • Provided entertainment
    • Distracted people from reality of work

The National State

  • By 1870, the West focused on the national state
  • Russia, eastern Europe, Austria-Hungary, and Ireland - struggling for independence

Tradition and Change in Latin America

  • After 1870, the Latin American economyexperienced rapid growth
    • Exports exchanged for textiles, machines, and luxury items
  • Under the economic control of the West
  • Traditional
    • Poverty
    • Slavery (abolished in 1888 but former slaves and descendants were still discriminated against)
  • Results of increased prosperity:
    • Growth in the middle sectors(middle-class) of society – doctors, lawyers, businesspeople, etc.
      • Lived in cities
      • Sought education
      • Tried to emulate the US
    • Growth in the working-class
    • Growth in labor unions, especially after 1914
      • Strikes
      • The government restricted the workers’ right to vote
  • Encouraged mass immigration from Europe
    • Over three million Italians, Portuguese, and Spaniards arrived between 1880 and 1914

Political Change in Latin America

  • After 1870, large landowners started becoming more interested in government
    • Controlled the government
    • Produced Western-style constitutions
    • Regulated voting
    • Used dictators to maintain their interests
  • Porfirio Diaz
    • Ruled Mexico from 1876 to 1910
    • Established a conservative government that supported and received support from:
      • The army
      • Foreign capitalists
      • Large landowners
      • The Catholic church
    • Under his rule:
      • The wages of the working-class declined
      • 95% of the rural population owned no land
      • 1000 families owned all of Mexico
  • In 1910, a liberal landowner, Francisco Madero, forced Diaz from power and started the Mexican Revolution
    • Emiliano Zapata demanded agrarian reform for landless peasants
    • He stole estates from wealthy landowners
    • The revolution destroyed the economy
    • Uprising of nationalist pride
  • Constitution (1917) - established a strong presidency, reforms
  • US control over Latin America, increasingly interfering with its affairs
    • After the Spanish-American War, Cuba became a US protectorate and Puerto Rico was annexed (taken over)
    • USA invested in Latin America
    • Defended US interests with military forces sent to Cuba, Mexico, etc.

The Rise of the United States

  • Between 1860 and World War One - US shifted from agrarian to industrial and urbanized
    • 1900- USA became the world’s richest nation and greatest industrial power
    • The quality of American life was questionable:
      • 1890- The richest 9% owned 71% of the nation’s wealth
      • Labor unrest led to the American Federation of Labor
        • The AFL lacked power
  • After the Progressive Era (after 1900), reform became a priority:
    • Theodore Roosevelt - regulated corrupt industrial practices
    • Woodrow Wilson - federal income tax

The United States as a World Power

  • At the end of the 19th century, US expansion
    • The Samoan Islands
    • Hawaii
      • 1887 - US controlled Hawaii’s sugar industry
      • 1898 - US deposed Queen Liliuokalani and Hawaii was annexed
    • 1898 – US defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War
    • 1898- US acquired Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
      • The US needed extra troops to pacify the Philippines

The Growth of Canada

  • 1870 - Four provinces: Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
  • 1871 - Two more: Manitoba, British Columbia
  • 1905 -Two more: Alberta, Saskatchewan
  • 1870-1914 - Problems with national unity
    • Distrust between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians
    • 1815 - John Macdonald
      • Goal: Unite Canada
      • 1885 - Transcontinental railroad
      • Industrialization
    • 1896 - William Laurier, first French prime minister
      • United the groups
      • Immigration
      • Industrialization

Europe

  • More liberal practices - constitutions, parliaments
  • Mass politics
    • Reforms
    • Expansion of democracy
    • Right to vote for men
    • Mass political parties
    • Developments resisted in some areas

Western Europe: The Growth of a Political Democracy

  • Great Britain
    • 1821-1871 - Liberals and Conservatives alternated power
      • Both dominated by aristocratic landowners, industrialists, and businesspeople
      • Supported the right to vote
        • 1918 - Men over 21 and women over 30 could vote
    • 1871
      • Two-Part Parliament
      • Growth of trade unions
    • 1900 - Labour Party
    • 1906-1914 - Liberals created a program of social welfare to keep support
    • 1914 - National Insurance Act - benefits for the sick and injured
  • France
    • 1852-1870 - Second Republic collapses, CHAOS!
    • 1870- Third Republic is established
    • 1875 - Improvised constitution
      • Bicameral legislature (two-part government)
        • Senate
        • Chamber of Deputies
          • Chosen by male suffrage
        • President with seven-year term
          • Had vague powers
        • Premier led government
        • Solidifies the Third Republic
          • The republic lasts for another 65 years
        • Weak Parliament
          • Many government changes
        • 1914 - People were still loyal to the republic
  • Italy
    • 1870 - Geographically united
    • Internal weakness
      • Sectional differences - poor south, industrial and rich north
      • No unity
      • Corruption
      • Many government changes

Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order

  • Germany
    • Constitution
    • 1871 - New Imperial Germany begun by Otto von Bismarck
    • Bicameral legislature
    • Reichstag - lower house of Parliament
      • Based on male suffrage
      • No ministerial power
    • Emperor controlled army, foreign diplomacy, and administration
    • 1888- 1918 - Emperor William II
      • Authoritarian, conservative, militaristic
      • Germany became the strongest military and industrial power
      • Landowners and industrialists tried to suppress the rising democracy
      • Support for expansion
      • Anti-socialist, anti-liberal groups
        • Pan-German League
          • Supported imperialism and German nationalism
          • Antisemitism
  • Austria-Hungary
    • 1867 - Dual monarchy
    • Austria received a Parliament
    • 1848-1916 - Emperor Francis Joseph ignored the Parliament
    • Nationality problems
      • German minority governs Austria
      • Germans threatened by Czechs, Poles, Slavs, etc.
      • 1907 - Male suffrage granted
        • Nationalities with no role in government fought for autonomy
    • After 1900 - All prime ministers ignored the Parliament
      • Relied on imperial emergency to rule
  • Russia
    • 1870 - Reforms
    • Westernizers
      • Western ways will solve Russia's problems
      • Wanted a Parliament and industrialization
    • Slavophiles
      • Traditionalists
      • Supported Orthodox faith, tsars, and peasantry
    • Anarchists
      • Revolutionary violence will destroy the government
      • Assassination
      • 1881 - Assassinated Tsar Alexander II
    • 1881-1894 - Tsar Alexander III(son)
      • Persecuted reformers and revolutionaries
    • 1894-1917 - Tsar Nicholas II(son of Alexander III)
      • Wanted to maintain tsars' power
    • After 1890 - Industrialization progressed rapidly
      • Factories
      • Industrial working class
      • Development of socialist parties
        • Repression forced them to become revolutionary
          • Marxist Social Democratic Party
            • Worked to overthrow tsars and establish peasant socialism
    • 1904-1905 - Russians defeat Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War
    • 1905 - Their win encouraged a REVOLUTION!
      • Socialist revolutionaries rebel against the tsar
      • Tsar Nicholas II
        • Granted civil liberty
        • Established a legislative assembly (Duma)
        • 1907 - Limited the Duma's power
          • Used the army and bureaucracy to rule instead

International Rivalries and the Winds of War

  • 1871-1914
    • Europe = peaceful (no wars involving any great powers)
    • Crises
      • 1871 - Germany emerged as most powerful state under Otto von Bismarck
        • Other nations = MAD
      • 1879 - Bismarck allied Germany with Austria
        • Plan: Support each other in war, protect each other from Russia
      • 1882 - Italy joins (mad at France for conflicts in North Africa
        • The Triple Alliance is created, united against France
        • Bismarck secretly creates a treaty with Russia
      • 1890 - Emperor William took over Germany
        • Foreign policy
        • Dropped Germany-Russia treaty
          • 1894 - Russia and France form a military alliance
          • 1897 - Great Britain, France, and Russia form the Triple Entente

The Ottoman Empire and Nationalism in the Balkans

  • The Ottoman Empiredid not like their subjects' goal to be independent of them
    • Balkan nationalism
  • Corruption and inefficiency in government
    • The other European powers kept it alive
      • The Eastern Question
    • Balkans gradually gained freedom
      • Rivalry with the region between Austria and Russia
    • 1829
      • Serbia becomes mostly autonomous
        • 1878 - Serbia becomes independent of the Ottoman Empire
      • Treaty of Adrianople - Moldavia and Wallachia became protectorates of Russia
        • Russia was forced to cede them after the Crimean War
    • 1830 - Greece revolts, gains independence
    • 1861 - Moldavia and Wallachia become part of Romania
    • 1878
      • Russia defeats the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War
      • Serbia and Romania recognized as independent
      • Montenegro became an Austrian protectorate
      • Bulgaria became autonomous with Russian protection
      • Bosnia and Herzegovina placed under Austrian protection (not occupied or annexed)

Crises in the Balkans, 1908 - 1913

  • 1908 - Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Serbia was MAD - It wanted a large Serbian kingdom made of Slavic nations
    • Austria did that on purpose - Serbia would be a threat to their empire's unity
    • Russia sided with Serbia - wanted to protect fellow Slavs
    • Serbia (with Russia's backup) waged war on Austria
    • Germany's William II demanded that Russia accept Bosnia and Herzegovina as independent or face war with Germany
    • Russia backed down but vowed revenge
      • Weak from Russo-Japanese War
  • 1912-1913 - First and Second Balkan Wars
    • Made inhabitants bitter, raised tension
    • Serbia never became a large kingdom
      • Blamed Austria
      • Suspicions and tension were raised

Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments

  • Before 1870 - Most people believed in Enlightenment beliefs and those of the Scientific Revolution
  • 1870-1914
    • Rising idea that humans can improve
    • New ideas

A New Physics

  • Isaac Newton
    • Time, space, and matter are objective
    • Atoms
  • Marie Curieand Pierre Curie
    • Subatomic particles
  • Max Planck
    • Quantum theory
  • Albert Einstein
    • Time and space depends on matter and energy
    • Einstein's theory of relativity

Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis

  • 1900 - Wrote An Analysis of Dreams
  • Psychoanalysis - A psychotherapist and patient probe deeply into the memory to make the conscious mind aware of the subconscious
  • Repression - Painful and unsettling experiences are blotted from conscious awareness but continue to influence behavior

Social Darwinism and Racism

  • Social Darwinism - Societies are organisms that evolve through time from a struggle with their environment
  • Racism
    • Discrimination against a group of people based on the color of their skin
    • 1855-1927 - Houston Stewart Chamberlain
      • True founders of Western culture are Aryans
      • Singled out the Jews as wanting to destroy Aryans

Anti-Semitism

  • Anti-Semitism - Discrimination against Jews
  • Improvements
    • 19th century
      • Jews begin to get more equality in many countries
      • Left ghettos to assimilate into culture
  • Non-improvements
    • 1880s-1890s - German and Austrian conservatives used Antisemitism to win votes of traditional lower-middle-class people that felt economic turmoil
    • Eastern Europe was the worst
      • Pogroms
      • Persecution
    • Jews fled to-
      • The United States of America
      • Palestine
        • Zionism - Theodor Herzl
        • 1897 - Zionist Congress meets in Switzerland
        • 1900 - 1000 Jews migrated to Palestine
        • 1904-1914 - 3000 Jews migrated to Palestine

The Culture of Modernity

  • Revolution in literature and the arts
  • Modernism
  • Writing
    • Symbolism - The world is made up of symbols that reflect the mind
  • Art
    • 1870-1914
      • Impressionism - Realistic paintings, usually of nature
        • Berthe Morisot
      • Post-Impressionism - Still realistic, usually of still life or nature
        • Vincent van Gogh
      • Cubism - Geometric designs used to recreate reality
        • Pablo Picasso
      • Abstract - No reality in art, speaks directly to the soul
        • Wassily Kandindsky
      • Photography
        • 1888 - Kodak
      • Architecture
        • Functionalism - buildings should be only practical
          • USA

Conclusion


Primary Sources


Timeline